定语从句的译法
 
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定语从句的译法
作者:潘平远    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2010-3-11

  英语定语从句在句法结构上虽属次要部分,在语言作用上却占有重要地位,应用极广。英语定语从句的结构有简有繁,对先行词的限制性有强有弱,翻译时需分别灵活处理。汉语中没有类似英语中定语从句的结构,一般说来,汉语定语放在它所修饰的词之前,往往只起修饰或限制的作用,而英语定语从句的功能却不止于此。另外,英语定语从句可以写得很长,可以由几个从句并列同时修饰一个名词,可以借助关系代词由一个从句套出另一个从句,而汉语名词前一般很少用结构复杂、描写性的长定语。因此,翻译英语定语从句时不能一律把它提前译作定语。常用的定语从句的译法有:[文章来自:考试与评价 3DVa#V'pv{m~`q2K]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 C$/ }fR%`0rgRPN]
  一、译成前置定语[文章来自:考试与评价 @~$?GCB?UgMU"FcW(]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ]-6z0\f3E} a^cu]
  一般说来,限制性定语从句可提前译成定语。还有一些定语从句,虽然不明显地带有限定性质,但本身较短,和被修饰语关系紧密,也可译为前置定语。例如:[文章来自:考试与评价  wq?MHQ?bkG]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 /?R=0uQU|D(b?`FP:]
  1. To be sure, a great rebuilding project would give jobs to many of those people who need them. 诚然,一个宏伟的重建计划也许能为许多需要工作的人提供就业机会。[文章来自:考试与评价 ?a! E#,2 j@3r$]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 "s8{R_Q9( @C%wp2x8]
  2. There is no royal road to science, and only those who do not dread the fatiguing climb of the steep paths have a chance of gaining its luminous summits. 在科学上没有平坦的大道,只有不畏劳苦、沿着陡峭的山路攀登的人,才有希望达到光辉的顶点。[文章来自:考试与评价 =~?`fKH2.-q.OF]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 "-R}1^-rh+ ,bjhd]
  3. In recent years, however, people have begun to become aware that cities are also areas where there is a concentration of problems. 可是,近几年来人们开始意识到城市也是问题成堆的地方。[文章来自:考试与评价 ibycpdVOJ|TgV*]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 y6NqD-3 C&dH|{9-]
  4. The moon is a world that is completely still and where utter silence prevails. 月亮是一个声断音绝的世界,是一个万籁俱寂的世界。[文章来自:考试与评价 iPb1))+t$ehO(o7?]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 f)MT?r@hVo2\T?Xyi[]
  如以上例句所示,这种译法最适于翻译较短的限制性定语从句。有时较长的限制性定语从句也可采用这种译法,以使修饰关系清晰,句子结构紧凑。例如:[文章来自:考试与评价 %P% yR;+.%X2(0mr]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ZLc-l/[hC(+G`FR]
  5. This practice book is intended for foreign engineers or students of engineering who have already mastered the elements of English, and who now want to use their knowledge of the language to read books on their subjects. 这本练习课本是给那些已经掌握了英语基础知识而现在要利用学到的语言知识来阅读专业书籍的外国工程师或学习工程学的学生用的。[文章来自:考试与评价 sP @e9.VBlX*j#DU?B.]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 i1UnQ3 {;[pLPLDM]
  6. To write a genuine familiar or truly English style is to write as any one who would speak in common conversation, who had a thorough command and choice of words, or who could discourse with ease, force and perspicuity. 用真正普通文体或纯正的英语文体写作就像那些熟谙词汇而又善于选择词汇,能高谈阔论且言辞流畅,说话有力而明确的人的日常交谈一般。[文章来自:考试与评价 ;K#5 kIXxRG;b' D~R]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 * Xk+v.?LLq'NV@$]
  例句6中的who had a thorough command and choice of words, or who could discourse with ease, force and perspicuity本应紧接先行词any one, 但由于太长而移后,而who would speak in common conversation则修饰上述两个定语从句及其先行词。[文章来自:考试与评价 )gd}XPfa % !#BYQ0{]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 7!&}V eFMR,=. t_]
  二、译成后置的并列分句[文章来自:考试与评价 j+RMK/bIKwV&"C c@]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 w]s0r\MEs; A5(=2MD]
  A. 一些结构较复杂,或者意思上有较强的独立性的限制性定语从句,通常可译为后置的并列分句。采取这种译法往往要重复关系代词所代替的词,有时可在该词之前加指示词“这”、“这些”等,以使译文明确。例如:[文章来自:考试与评价 _V`C tqD"^!~zVio]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 |qQ-DQfFB_TiKh|]
  1. This volume is prepared as examples for writing compositions which as it were has been taken as a difficult task. 本书旨在为写作提供范例,可以说写作是一个难题。[文章来自:考试与评价 YnANm0#Q H=P=2%DR]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 i(z !~nXSQ?;n oo]
  2. Every nation also wants the opportunity and privilege of buying from foreign countries products and services that are scarce or unavailable at home that would be useful and beneficial to its people. 每个国家也需要有机会和优惠权从国外购买国内奇缺或买不到的产品和劳务,这些产品和劳务一定是对本国人民有用有利。[文章来自:考试与评价 \ |r:y4rg/WIP`#wn]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ?1@0|_ ]\2JnL36]
  例句2中第一个定语从句译为前置定语,修饰其先行词。第二个定语从句则是修饰前一个定语从句及其先行词的,如仍译为前置定语,译文必然会累赘不堪,无法读通,故译为后置并列句。[文章来自:考试与评价 ]O[BGk?fDRpZ&U)@]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 pYwW =Z" MkJ]
  3. Matter is composed of molecules that are composed of atoms. 物质是由分子组成的,而分子又是由原子组成的。[文章来自:考试与评价 m5oN gj^B-'8A(]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 @@M],wr?ZZZv;Ye]
  在例句3中,从句在语义上与主句相承,在译文中除了重复关系代词所指代的词之外,还加上了连词“而”,使译文语气连贯。[文章来自:考试与评价 i^bf, G"')kfiZZ`]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 d7RYtnW W_fK%]
  有些定语从句翻译时可不必重复关系代词所代替的词,而将其译成人称代词“他”、“他们”等,使句子简明扼要。例如:[文章来自:考试与评价 Y e;gE|&o$yPK]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 7To|xRAb9~U)kX]
  4. Honeycutt was 40, an affable man who had to leave his family in Raleigh, North Carolina, when he?蒺d gone north to work. 亨尼卡那年40岁,和蔼可亲,他去北方工作时不得不把家室留在北卡罗来纳州罗利市。[文章来自:考试与评价 ^%8t XtnL#GuNud']
  [文章来自:考试与评价 $ YE_E)[H25^ilNb]
  B. 非限定性定语从句与先行词的关系不十分密切,只是对先行词加以说明、描述或解释,或对整个语句所陈述的事实或现象加以总结概括、补充说明。在汉译时,一般译为后置的并列分句。例如:[文章来自:考试与评价 eH;cZ=v@m{NrdMIM]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 sP)" bqf;Xpp\.q}]
  1. In English, attributive clauses are used extensively, some of which are very long and complicated in structure. 在英语中,定语从句的运用极为广泛,有的从句很长而且结构复杂。[文章来自:考试与评价 1d%(E`&`$9+@XAMG.]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 5(LQ;|t6nbfY@OlIN]
  2. Bertrand Russell, whose philosophical writings made a profound impact on philosophers all over the world, died in 1970. 伯特兰德·罗素于1970年逝世,他的哲学著作对全世界哲学家都有深刻的影响。[文章来自:考试与评价 DG*u'3}*y%M V]iE]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 /7g7](%(^5$p 7b]
  3. He gave in his resignation, which was the best thing he could do in the circumstance. 他提出了辞职,这在当时的情况下是最佳选择。[文章来自:考试与评价 .XKTmxl N0~qVa0)]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ]\+ F@Q6tK 7KN$=]
  4. He blamed me for everything, which I thought very unfair. 他把一切错误都归罪于我,我认为这很不公平。[文章来自:考试与评价 }='F=z|mW,lyDLb]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 h\6v1)ro+?L?17]
  5. She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was. 她对孩子们很耐心,她的丈夫却很少这样。[文章来自:考试与评价 ixrKF=8^~_'9x-$r q]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 I(ME!uJTSJ^2 K]
  6. A friend is someone who draws out your best qualities, with whom you sparkle and become more knowledgeable. 朋友就是能使你表现出自己最佳品质的人,与他在一起你就会精神焕发,更有见识。[文章来自:考试与评价 Ax&XdSb]GqQOU6Vj&I]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 Q=Wm?%(0D9_9 I]
  三、融合译法[文章来自:考试与评价 TR_-Y:0x;T7}vck_{{]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 YZL2GQov@9adEc`]
  融合译法是指把主句与定语从句结合起来译,使之融合成一个独立的句子。例如:[文章来自:考试与评价 %J2-|F\rVi3%TShHF]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 Q8h}JS"Qk@y?`Qz]
  1. You are the only person who could do it. 只有你才能做这事。[文章来自:考试与评价 #J?CO7Z1$70J"){]]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 L$ x1l~(E]^;\J"l]
  2. This was the first time I had serious trouble with my boss. 这是我第一次和老板发生严重纠葛。[文章来自:考试与评价 s&Gn8x)?znYRZSapd]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 5V[4 /N[pPf=MW]
  3. Our team, who are in good form, will do well in the coming matches. 我们队竞赛状态良好,一定会在未来的比赛中取得好成绩。[文章来自:考试与评价 *`?[9y=#7;=CdYs$N]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 m2m"{"R*gv-8% sG]
  4. He has a son of seventeen who is now at the high school. 他有一个十七岁的儿子正在上中学。[文章来自:考试与评价 `ngNfp3?87IZj(~Jt]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 $o2[J}#O9 _s wjc]
  英语中含有定语从句 的“there be…”结构汉译时常常使用融合译法。例如:[文章来自:考试与评价 ^9[x+`vcCf sS .&]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 n(:YV#dDtL$-Q#]
  5. There was no one who did not praise them for their great accomplishments. 没有人不赞同他们取得的巨大成就。(人人称赞他们所取得的巨大成就。)[文章来自:考试与评价 hOlt7xU5%?dw7%;9p]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 $xH(rN$Vm~IKwT0|]
  6. There is nothing that does not contain contradiction. 没有什么事物不包含矛盾的。[文章来自:考试与评价 R{wb:WQUID0qY]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 {xrnIDFE/P Vs?/@T^(]
  四、译成状语[文章来自:考试与评价 fR4Wm'6S|RK* mT ]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ++4cREpBT]v+ =]
  英语中有些定语从句在内容上含有时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步等状语意思,翻译时往往可以加上相应的词语,以表达出其相应的状语意义。[文章来自:考试与评价 =Y?TIo&_ -u` e]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 |B.=,F# #Kgh6@1f]
  A. 表示原因[文章来自:考试与评价 P}fVN #W7=uO-ik]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 XI@U".nVfn}WLPm0]
  1. We engage Professor Wu, who understands English. 我们聘请吴教授,因为他懂英语。[文章来自:考试与评价 qVtJ+zr2sA]R ,P,$O]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 i@bA-GyU:?&[7 Y)=]
  2. Many of our Welsh people are going to settle in North Carolina, where land is cheap. 我们威尔士人有许多去北卡罗来纳州定居,因为那里的土地便宜。[文章来自:考试与评价 M5Hbq%..*^#ydC U]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ,9s^+ /.K%Y?.&]
  B. 表示时间[文章来自:考试与评价 e@qO7r[qT;2;)[f]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ?s)Jw953=f(gpuZGG)]
  1. You, who are in the prime of your life, come forth with greater contributions for the benefit of the people. 趁你年富力强的时候,为人民做出更多的贡献吧。[文章来自:考试与评价 5s)q6G-8L("oCB]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 O)*Co;?u&Sbn3]PQ]
  2. A sailor who was fixing a rope lost balance and tumbled overboard. 一个水手在系绳子的时候,失去平衡,掉到水里去了。[文章来自:考试与评价 +GI{(\?mYN|7K yd]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 _p\ =\ ,oaV+J]
  3. Congress, which had met to continue its protests to the Crown, found itself raising an army and selecting George Washington as its commander in chief. 代表大会先前已集会决定继续向英皇抗议了,现在进而召集军队并推选乔治·华盛顿为总司令。[文章来自:考试与评价 gnXW W?V?4!iyI2`8F]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 2"H)e &l0c;P45^4=:]
  C. 表示目的[文章来自:考试与评价 y6ox?ZJcV^Y s6]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 8MWB8Re|_wDY}o_]
  1. He is collecting authentic material that proves his argument. 他正在收集确凿的材料以证明他的论点。[文章来自:考试与评价 'e_[%xG,^\]?k y]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 !?6F+7;3S`XBHF_]
  2. Chinese trade delegations have been sent to African countries, who will negotiate trade agreements with the respective governments. 中国派了贸易代表团前往非洲各国,以便与各国政府商谈贸易协定。[文章来自:考试与评价 $k1B@-F,R?jvZ+PK]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 s'3_0Iait#J *iE]
  D. 表示结果[文章来自:考试与评价 Ykl`tw l[Z0NNW`&]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ;1]vy2n9o"@F]
  1. He ate a fungus, which made him ill. 他吃了一个蘑菇,结果病倒了。[文章来自:考试与评价 -S*$13e|)d#nmiD%%Rz]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 Iz)@kyW}?zX|#|]
  2. The rain washed away the track, which prevented the train from running. 大雨冲走了铁轨,因而火车无法行使。[文章来自:考试与评价 9RHeq[QIi(h+n=b7t]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 to)65?&.,r)=I']
  3. In this way, he provided inspiration for a whole generation of scientists who became active in the communist movement. 这样,他鼓舞了整整一代科学家,使他们积极参加共产主义运动。[文章来自:考试与评价 S~+=juT\-{f^ WQ:]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 Wnt9A:&6@+$#AGf"]
  E. 表示条件[文章来自:考试与评价 GJQ[F:k-39}fb=\*]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 V/m2am6p|BgrZ24Z!]
  1. Nothing is hard in this world for one who dares to scale the height. 世上无难事,只怕有心人。[文章来自:考试与评价 y\ 4up`$t(7DBL?oEE ]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 XO"=I=vh*8EPAQwru]
  2. Men became desperate for work, any work, which will help them to keep their families alive. 人们迫不及待地找工作,不管干什么,只要能养家糊口就行。[文章来自:考试与评价 k_i{A5]S@C6d[*};r.]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 . tp3A% |3];tie=H D]
  3. The difficulties that would have to be encountered by anyone who attempted to explore the Moon would be incomparably greater than those that have to be faced in the endeavor to reach the summit of Mount Qomolangma. 任何人如果打算登上月球探险的话,他必然遭遇到种种困难。困难之大,是努力攀登珠穆朗玛峰时所面临的困难无法比拟的。[文章来自:考试与评价 b/qc= @0ETT:=c%Hc]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 *rbXgtor }mDf'T]
  F. 表示让步[文章来自:考试与评价 T8u=@ Vhm%@_X 7%p]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 5IIM `F+b is$?]
  1. My grandfather, who is now in his eighties, is still a keen cyclist. 我爷爷虽然八十多岁了,可还是很喜欢骑自行车。[文章来自:考试与评价 ,!!A] MJ-aBFcN~Z]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 I!FpEc,H)}OJ~=]
  2. Electronic computer, which have many advantages, cannot carry out creative work and replace man. 电子计算机虽然有许多优点,却不能进行创造性的工作,代替不了人。[文章来自:考试与评价 YlIKp(@ydy^'4 Z]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 2i33ajL X_N+2_]
  3. Glass, which breaks at a blow, is nevertheless capable of withstanding great pressure. 玻璃虽然一击即碎,却能承受巨大的压力。

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