句子成分的换译法
 
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句子成分的换译法
作者:潘平远    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2010-3-11

  由于汉英两种语言表达方式不同,结构也不同,结果导致两者在翻译过程中除了词序不同外,还有语序不同,也就是句子成分的转变。[文章来自:考试与评价 :W`}t:$rXt/n7yt{]
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  1. 将汉语的主语译成英语的宾语[文章来自:考试与评价 1VtGB 7vo~R ?HL$1]
  [文章来自:考试与评价  4$w1Har?;I1yHr]
  因为英语的宾语有两种,即动词宾语和介词宾语,因此,在汉译英时,根据汉语的语言表达方式,可以将汉语的主语译成英语动词的宾语或英语介词的宾语。[文章来自:考试与评价 =OGd7__$]o]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 #tk,`1+O%uIT=0,`]
  1) 译成英语动词的宾语[文章来自:考试与评价 BJ& ^pauwPa3&#gFlN]
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  E   那家工厂去年生产的钢比前年多。[文章来自:考试与评价 m YHo:Pu& q"+9]
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  The plant produced more steel last year than the year before last.[文章来自:考试与评价 J`x[(s5_0 c"b_2u/]
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  这种机器的功能有三。[文章来自:考试与评价 DK]sE+.=iV7G7^^$]
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  This kind of machine has three functions.[文章来自:考试与评价 2Lq`OJ18GM6fH7k]
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  2) 译成英语介词的宾语[文章来自:考试与评价 f EIp;tI@oAilg8]
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  E   尽管约翰和他哥哥在年纪上相差不大,但他们的个性却不相同。[文章来自:考试与评价 ,*vt%zt%.\-}=G}wL8]
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  John and his brother differ in personality even if their differences in age are not significant.[文章来自:考试与评价 5T6C4X}n7cB(=JVT]
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  这座大楼的外观看起来像那座大楼的外观。[文章来自:考试与评价 ,;l8`_=iY"0 - lm]
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  This building looks like that one in appearance.[文章来自:考试与评价 N:4Jjx]|Pu|}Ov?]
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  2. 将汉语的表语译成英语的主语[文章来自:考试与评价 HC^H%ijtF7+j-o]
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  E   莉萨、玛丽、托尼和安迪是班上最好的学生。[文章来自:考试与评价 yx%Uze/l;32:gFd[w:`]
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  Of our class the best students are Lisa, Mary, Tony and Andy.[文章来自:考试与评价 3$Q-sLx,fLi .mN]
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  鸡、鱼、肉是他最喜欢的三种食物。[文章来自:考试与评价 z}~AS"] dM]!oQPG?|]
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  His three kinds of favorite food are chicken, fish and meat.[文章来自:考试与评价 Ca[(g+wSo2[bDR? i!;]
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  3. 将汉语的主语译成英语的定语[文章来自:考试与评价 5?%.t:{ryUG\s`Z O{]
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  E  在英语四级考试中,听力理解后面是阅读理解。[文章来自:考试与评价 kNYdV$CbK6yU+c!p]
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  The next part behind listening comprehension in CET-4 is reading comprehension.[文章来自:考试与评价 /B2te`/7K&4]
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  那个山区有许多自然资源有待于开发利用。[文章来自:考试与评价 @0H( tB3dMsZ2;C?&]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 KYh&c%k 2+7e50]
  A lot of natural resources in the mountain area will be exploited and used.[文章来自:考试与评价 E9;O:e_WW[]
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  4. 将汉语的主语译成英语的状语[文章来自:考试与评价 x4 If)Kw2agsjO'})X]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 /, Yh*Nz&.%lLTg);]
  E   外语教研部用阅卷机给学生批卷。[文章来自:考试与评价 YLd=e ;68P@{:@h]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 |e WWsAb(?QM Nc]
  In the Foreign Languages Department a checking machine is used to correct the students' test papers.[文章来自:考试与评价 ew#0/8!!S!AA?QLABY]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 "}D+:`-\d}v #J#a]
  我们班有40名学生。[文章来自:考试与评价 %Wa?Yk!^!'?g02]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 K8f6 9F Gkuj=*)g7]
  There are forty students in our class.[文章来自:考试与评价 }l7lMGH "Y~FN*v]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 P~YN30Og;UR =rz]
  5. 将汉语的定语译成英语的主语[文章来自:考试与评价 H%R9Gy?8b3 qg5q$M%_]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 =Fyr@+GX sk}BVgi{]
  E  各种材料的磁性有很大的不同。[文章来自:考试与评价 Tw_ bMd+jIM|uJ9%]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 /A=v=!:8 RMM$]
  Various substances differ widely in their magnetic characteristics.[文章来自:考试与评价 !sLtb|4O2 6queY AS6]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 K?zZx} p?=Gp#:]
  晶体管的体积小,重量轻。[文章来自:考试与评价 F#A@KM8&(WKE,lg|]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 {=U-t!qs* 0b.UdH]
  Transistors are small in size and light in weight.[文章来自:考试与评价 sj/ $2x\q#2-|%`)]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 -7*t-U^D0L/YPdJ]
  6. 将汉语的宾语译成英语的主语[文章来自:考试与评价 2 o+V--zG~URna!O3]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 EW`_/GfN5n pD]
  虽然汉语和英语两种语言中都有被动句,但被动句在汉语中应用较少,而在英语中应用却较多。所以常利用英语的被动结构将汉语的宾语译成英语的主语。[文章来自:考试与评价 $g (Kei`4%JZyP]
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  E   老师鼓励学生多听、多读、多写。[文章来自:考试与评价  eK70Ap9u4t8xI}h& ]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 p@%2.J\1i Su6q ]
  The students are encouraged to do more listening, reading and writing by their teacher.[文章来自:考试与评价 84#%(w#{3-*S]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 Px=n3NXc[uaE *.2 ]
  目前,已经超额完成计划。[文章来自:考试与评价 #hQ&Jmnfe(90($94%G9]
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  The plan has been over fulfilled by now.[文章来自:考试与评价 SPo &o|WN)PE_}UP]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 ":aU!F4jh"C'}nZ]
  7. 将汉语的定语译成英语的表语[文章来自:考试与评价 Jwf7$S;=x_P }\Y*]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 [MPDLJbUg+F9'E7@]]
  E   他最喜欢的运动之一是踢足球。[文章来自:考试与评价 :%N(*/X-R059#WX8]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 9h/gp`%lL  +]
  Playing football is one of his most favorite sports.[文章来自:考试与评价 K?`:N%E3%Ah'gi]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 p0xA?/scy@'3hu${l]
  大气中的气体、水、岩石等是无机物中最普通的实例。[文章来自:考试与评价 Ri_k=2HuD6`]\;O]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 f(a-$;Xyiv.}dhoR]
  The most common samples of inorganic materials are the gases of the atmosphere, water, rocks, etc.[文章来自:考试与评价 c9Yk[8S@4?('tGUnQ7 ]
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  8. 将汉语的谓语译成英语的定语[文章来自:考试与评价 {F|gvoJ@C&szS'Oe~]
  [文章来自:考试与评价 =fU}|=7 Wt JzCz4 ]
  E   由于摩擦而损耗了大量的能量。[文章来自:考试与评价 M&` PXql0=0''!:sx]
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  There is a large amount of energy wasted due to friction.[文章来自:考试与评价 EG"!Q2Rc.L!/D\DW5m ]
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  中国人民大学   韩松涛

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